The importance of the relationship between groundwater and climate change cannot be over-stated. Aquifers mitigate droughts as they have a high storage capacity and are less sensitive to climate change than surface water bodies. Groundwater recharge of aquifers mainly occurs due to precipitation. Since surface water ultimately affects groundwater systems, any change in the amount of effective rainfall will alter recharge, but so will a change in the duration of the recharge season.

Natural groundwater droughts originate from reduced recharge over a prolonged period of time and can have severe socio-economic and environmental impacts. Groundwater droughts are mainly associated with low well yields, which affect public water supply and irrigation practices and can also be related to other droughts, such as agricultural droughts.